CTVA300 Language of Film

an ePorfolio by Jeremy B. Warner
California State University Fullerton


Course Description

Visual and syntactic components of the motion picture. Detailed analysis of frame, line, space, shape, image size, movement, tone, color and structuring of visual images.

Project Abstract

I am designing a virtual reality (VR) videogame which simulates camera controls of a camera and offers students control over individual photography aspects in an effort to provide an equal playing field for all students in the course. The game introduces each variable of the camera on an individual basis, allowing students to observe and analyze how each variable is functioning. As the student progresses through the game, different controls will be added, eventually allowing students to have full control over a virtual manual camera. In addition to the controls, students will be given a series of tasks inside the game to accomplish demonstrating a thorough understanding of composition and visual language. The game will grade the assignments in the game allowing students to see immediate feedback. In addition, the course will include an RPG game to replace workbooks and quizzes in the course with the goal being to move students away from a course base point system consisting of a finite number of points and into a gamification point system with an unlimited number of points.


Virtual Reality, Video Game, Gamification, Cinema, Film, Visual Arts, Flipped Classroom




Pedagogical Approaches

Pedagogical Approaches

Virtual Lab (Simulation), Gamification, Flipped Classroom, Online Homework

Class Size

Class Size

Approximately 100

Background on Redesign

Course Characteristics and Learning Problems

  • Difficult Subject Matter - Students often think film courses will be easy. The majority of my students do not expect the course to cover lens physics, light physics, color theory, psychology, mathematical equations, and other science based disciplines. For example, f-stop refers to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the light's entrance pupil. Students often struggle with the mathematical portion which inhibits their understanding of what is happening.
  • Cost Prohibitive Equipment- Due to the number of students taking the course, the school does not supply cameras to the students. Students may use a variety of cameras, ranging from mobile devices to DSLRs, but there is a lack of consistency from camera to camera. Low-end DSLRs start in the $400 range, thus being cost prohibitive to low income students. Students who possess DSLRs often perform better in the course than students who utilize mobile devices.
  • Scheduling Issues - Group work and networking is a major key to success media production, thus group work is an integral part of my course. Due to work, family obligations, and other conflicts, many students often find it difficult to coordinate schedules to work together.

Course History

  • The course is a prerequisite for a minimum of eight other courses and is a requirement for the Cinema and Television Arts major. In addition, the course is a lateral course in the School of Communications, often resulting in about half of the class being Communications Majors and the other have being Cinema and Television Arts Majors.
  • In 2015-2016, there were 305 students and 107 received repeatable grades resulting in a 35.08% DFW.
  • The high DFW rate resulted in several upper level production courses being canceled some semesters due to lack of students who passed the course.

High Demand/Low Success

  • Technological Skills - Film is about the use of technology to communicate. Out of 102 students entering the course in Fall 2017 stated that they had little to no knowledge of how to use technology.
  • Over Analyzation - Students in the course often are trying to find a deep meaning within assignments. For example, one assignment was to take selfies. Out of approximately 100 students, ten stated they didn't know what I meant by a selfie. The same thing happened when asking for a picture of a square.
  • Heavy Workload - Students often complain every semester about the workload in the course. The syllabus outlines the amount of work needed to pass the course and I emphasize on a weekly basis the need to stay on schedule. There is often a misunderstanding of what happens in a film course, thus they assume there's little to no work besides a paper and watching a few movies. Instead, the course consists of approximately twenty photo assignments demonstrating an understanding of the technical definitions and creative use of visual language.

Student Statistics

based upon entrance surveys to the course in Fall 2017* and collected statistics over a four weeks**
Percentage Lacking Technological Skills*
Percentage from Under-represented Groups*
Percentage Owning DSLR Equipment*
Average Number of Questions Regarding Assignments per Week**

Student Characteristics

  • Misconceptions Regarding the Course - Students often think film courses will be easy. The majority of my students do not expect the course to cover lens physics, light physics, color theory, psychology, mathematical equations, and other science based disciplines. Throw in the creative realms and the world of images from art history and it's a whirlwind gathered from multiple academic disciplines. For example, f-stop refers to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the light's entrance pupil. Students often struggle with the mathematical portion which inhibits their understanding of how the image is changing and the semantics in the change. This in turn causes them to struggle with the application when the equation turns into how much light is in the image.
  • Standardized Test Thinking - Most of the students entering my courses tend to only think in black and white and I believe this correlates with the educational policies and standardized testing. The question is often, "Jeremy, what do you want?" Teaching a course that is about using the semantics of the image in creative ways proves difficult for many of the students to grasp that there isn't always a correct answer.
  • Lack in Technological Skills - Students walk into the course without the basic technological skills they need to survive in the digital world. For example, Dropbox and cloud storage is an integral part of business and the media industry. Many people I know would not even consider hiring a student who did not know Dropbox or Google Drive. In fact, I would rate knowing cloud computing above the need to know document editing software. I often tell students to "share to jwarner@fullerton.edu, then turn on link sharing and post the link share in the submission box. This semester over half of the students did it wrong by copying and pasting. In my opinion, this skill is like knowing how to use a web browser. There are many other basic items such as this which create many barriers for them entering into the field. To learn, they want their hand held with tutorials. If I make a video tutorial, it can often be outdated within weeks due to updates. Thus, the students need a new tutorial to relearn the software. Many struggle with learning how to learn software.

My Advice

  • One Step at a Time - One of the first things I deal with in the course is advising the students to take one step at a time. Each project completed in the course is part of a larger project and stepping through a workflow to achieve a final goal.
  • Brand Yourself - To overcome the issue of standardized test thinking, it's important for you to know who you are. Thus I suggest they brand themselves and try their best to see who they are and what they represent. I advised them not to submit things that fit my brand, but to submit things that meet the project requirements fitting their brand. There are some students who cannot handle breaking the standardized test mold.
  • Learn How to Learn and How to Seek Help - I show students Lynda tutorials and easy ways to find their goal on YouTube. I go over the proper way to phrase questions. Instead of saying, "I don't understand the assignment," I suggest they quote the part of the requirements they don't understand while asking. For example, "In the third step, it states that you should share to jwarner@fullerton.edu. How does was share to?" This way, I can tell the step in the process where they are confused. It can also be used in Google searches to help them find the answer they seek.
  • It's All A Game - Part of the reason why I am designing a game is that students know they can make mistakes in games. You can die and then you get a chance to redo. By doing the same thing over and over, you develop a strategy to get around each obstacle. Academia, working in the real world, and most of everything we do revolves around developing strategies to get around obstacles to meet end goals. The way you approach the problem and the journey you take to meet the end goal is what creates your brand and narrative.

Impact of Student Learning Outcomes on Course Redesign

Student Learning Outcomes

Identify elements of visual language in images and define the elements in writing.

Demonstrate an understanding of concepts through a series of technical proficiency utilizing a camera and software.

Analyze and discuss film semantics from twelve different films from different cultures, filmmakers, and forms.

Design and produce nine narrative scenes utilizing concepts of visual language.

Criticize filmmakers' and classmates' works and explain their use of film language orally and in writing.

Propose, develop, and construct a final project in three different stages.

Discover new technology and develop a strategy to learning technology without the help of others.

Alignment of SLOs with Course Redesign

The SLOs didn't change much from the original, but I did elaborate, define, and clarify the overall outcomes. The main goal with this redesign is to add gamification and simulation to break students out of the educational habits they have developed. One of the new SLOs I added was discovering new technology and learning it. The course is tech heavy and the ability to guide others on how to use new technology is important to understanding how visual language is created and works. I broke the SLO on creating images into two different SLOs. One group of photo assignments is on Bloom's Taxonomy at a level 3 (application) and the other is a level 6 (creation). The video games being developed will help with the SLOs falling into the first three levels of Bloom's.

Accessibility Considerations

I have gone to great lengths to make the technology as accessible as possible. One of the major issues with teaching a visual language course deals with accessibility for students with visual impairments. All documents and videos will met accessibility requirements and the video games are being designed to the best of my ability to meet accessibility standards. One of the major issues is the game engines are not up to speed with accessibility issues due to quickly evolving technology and issues within the gaming industry. For students who cannot use the game, alternative approaches to learning will be available.


Part of the goal with the redesign is to give students access to a virtual camera, thus eliminating cost for purchasing a camera.
The department has a required book for the course, but I was able to convince them to turn it into recommended for the course. Materials will be provided to the student at no cost, including online reading materials, reference materials, and the videogames for the course.


A major goal behind the redesign was to give camera access to all students. Though students can use many of the functions on their phone, the settings are often hidden or require additional app purchases. This puts all students on the same level while completing assignments and doesn't give preference to students who have high end equipment.

Jeremy B. Warner


Jeremy B. Warner comes from an established background in film, video, theatre, fine art, and new media. Before moving to Los Angeles, he directed films and theatre, created new media art, and studied nonlinear storytelling. Upon his arrival in SoCal, he assisted George Hickenlooper in editing, producing, and developing projects for film and television. After finishing post on a recent documentary, Jeremy B. Warner teamed with Jose Nuñez to form Hamboning Media LLC, a virtual reality and media production company. Jeremy B. Warner has a B.A. in Theatre & Drama and Fine Art Studio from Indiana University and a M.F.A. in Film and Media Arts from Temple University. He is currently teaching producing and production courses in the Cinema and Television Arts Department at California State University, Fullerton.

Personal Info

  •   323.638.7649
  •   jwarner@fullerton.edu.

The Redesign

Redesigned Aspects

Gamification of the course was a significant portion of the redesign. The course was already designed as a flipped classroom. There were three ways the course was gamified: First, lecture videos were reviewed in class using Kahoot. The questions on the lectures were randomized, keeping the topics varied. Instead of a quiz for the problematic material, an RPG video game was designed based on the student acting as an intern for a movie studio. The student must meet different people and do tasks that illustrate the difficult concepts. I will continue to develop the game for additional topics in the course. The third gamifying element is having the students use VR headsets available in the library to complete one of their assignments using a camera simulator. Students submit their photos outputted from the game for the assignment.

Technology Used

For the first part, I utilize Kahoot. The second part was designed in Unity by me and created by me. The third part was done in Unity and working with Lone In Wolf, a game development company in the UK.

Professional Development Activities

I completed the Quality Assurance course and attended the Immersive Technologies Summit at San Diego State University. I completed Unity certification in December as a Certified Unity Developer. I received a Nvidia hardware grant and attended webinars on development.

Additional Resources

Assets from the store were used to create the design. The assets helped code the games and provided 3D objects for the games.

Course Redesign Impact on Teaching and Learning


Overall, the class redesign significantly affected my pedagogical approach to the classes I teach. I found gamification to be relatable to most students, and student engagement was extremely high, especially after years of low participation inside the classroom.

Probably the biggest influence was the use of Kahoots to gamify review of the course material. Students come to class having viewed the lecture videos and completing a workbook. Class time would contain discussions about the weekly screenings, review of video lectures, Q&A, review of assignments, and in-class time to work with groups. Previously, I reviewed the material in the class utilizing a traditional lecture and Q&A format. Some students would participate, but it was usually confined a select few. By using Kahoots, approximately 90% of the class participated in the material review and over half of the students would participate in the discussion of each question. Awarding points for the in-class Kahoots increased classroom competition, even though the points were not applied to the students’ grades.

One of the issues I tried to tackle was the standardized test approach to classroom materials. By using gamification, I noticed there was less of a focus on grade grubbing and a higher focus on the accumulation of the highest score. Though my original goal was to work this into the weekly workbooks, implementation was not fully possible with the limited time for development.

A second issue was helping students understand the difficult course material. Since students often cannot afford DSLR cameras for the course, they completed one exercise in virtual reality using a camera simulator. This allowed students to play with the camera, make mistakes, and learn the difficult concepts by doing. Though the exercise was limited due to equipment, time, and other factors, it was a huge success. I plan to further develop exercises, games, and simulations utilizing virtual reality, mobile platforms, and gaming platforms.

Only one student owned a virtual reality headset. Thus almost every student in the course needed to use one of the two headsets in the library. I think this helped achieve my overall goal of affordability and accessibility, even though students had to plan time to use the equipment. It reached the goal of providing a baseline where all students used the same virtual materials compared to some students having purchased high-end equipment while others are limited by lower end options.

Some of the original issues, such as fear of technology did prove challenging. I noticed that students from underrepresented groups and lower income brackets did struggle with tech anxiety compared to students from higher income brackets or traditionally represented groups. Other concerns were the lack of interest in video games by a small number of students, which may have lead to a lack of full classroom participation. My Redesigned Course had fewer issues with students approaching technology than in previous semesters; there was still a fear of technology by several students in the class.

Success of SLOs

  • Identify elements of visual language in images and define the elements in writing.
      Students viewed films and submitted screening responses or screening quizzes. The average rate of students completing the responses in the Pre Redesigned Course was 74%, and in the Redesigned Course, an average of 85% finished the screening responses.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of concepts through a series of technical proficiency utilizing a camera and software.
      Students submitted a Photo Journal demonstrating technical proficiency of application of camera concepts and software. The Photo Journal grades in the redesigned course were 13% higher than the Pre Redesigned Course.
  • Analyze and discuss film semantics from twelve different films from different cultures, filmmakers, and forms.
      Students completed screening responses and in-class discussion. Besides the overall increase in completed screening responses, I did not see a significant difference from the Pre Redesigned Course to the Redesigned Course.
  • Design and produce nine narrative scenes utilizing concepts of visual language.
      Students submitted a Photo Journal with nine mini-stories. The scores and completion rates were much higher in the Redesigned Course versus the Pre Redesigned Course. Criticize filmmakers' and classmates' works and explain their use of film language orally and in writing. Students completed screening responses and in-class discussion. Besides the overall completion of screening responses, I did not see a significant difference from the Pre Redesigned Course to the Redesigned Course. The level of understanding demonstrated in the responses seemed slightly higher, but there wasn’t a data-driven demonstration available.
  • Propose, develop, and construct a final project in three different stages.
      Students created a final project. There wasn’t a difference between the Redesigned and Pre Redesigned Courses.
  • Discover new technology and develop a strategy to learning technology without the help of others.
      Students would complete tutorials in the Photo Journal and be responsible for discovering how to achieve goals using software and hardware assigned in the journal. Students in the Redesigned Course had fewer questions on how to use the software compared to the Pre Redesigned Course.

      Unexpected Outcomes

      I was not expecting such a significant jump in Photo Journal scores after using the simulation game. Though several students expressed concern about completing the simulator, it appears that the simulator significantly increased their understanding of the challenging subject matter.

      From my experience in the two courses, students from underrepresented groups and lower economic backgrounds seemed to be more apprehensive about using technology and gamifying the classroom. I currently do not have enough data to confirm this statement. Thus I think it would be something to examine in greater detail. I hypothesize that this is due to the availability and exposure of the technology before entering the class. In the Pre Redesigned Course, there was a clear technological gap between traditionally represented groups and underrepresented groups. I did not see this strong of a divide in the Redesigned Course, but students from underrepresented groups often responded more negatively compared to traditionally represented students. This gap causes me some concern since one goal of the redesign was to provide equal access and tools to all students through a simulator versus equipment purchased with their funds.

      Trailer of Camera Simulator - Magic Hour


      The Redesigned Course performed better than the Pre Redesigned Course. The Redesigned Course had 90% of the students passing whereas the Pre Redesigned Course only had 81% of the students passing.

      The exciting part is where the students performed better. On the two exams, the Redesigned Course performed approximately 5% better. I believe this correlates with the use of Kahoots to review flipped classroom lectures versus traditional lecture and Q&A review of materials. I utilized Kahoots to review flipped classroom videos in other courses, and all of my courses using gamified review show between a 3% to 6% increase in test scores.

      The most significant performance increase was in the Photo Journal where the students used the virtual reality photography simulator for some of their assignments. There was a 13% increase in the average grade of the Photo Journal in the Redesigned Course. The use of a simulator appears to increase the understanding of the application of course material. The simulator ONLY covered the most difficult concepts in the course, which are the application of camera physics. It’ll be interesting to see scores as other ideas are integrated into the simulator.

      Chart 1

      Chart 2

      Chart 3

      Chart 4

Student Feedback

One exceptionally prepared student was opposed to the Virtual Reality assignments and was vocal about it during class. After the exercise, the student stated that they thoroughly enjoyed the task and that they understood the camera much better.

Two students told me that they would spend additional time preparing and reviewing the flipped classroom lectures so they could win Kahoot.

Using analytics from the YouTube lectures, the percentage of students watching the talks in the Redesigned course was on average 23% higher than the rate of students in the Pre Redesigned Course.

I had one non-traditional student complain to me about the use of Kahoots to gamify the review of the flipped lectures in the course. This particular student said that they felt the Kahoots were a waste of time since they already watched the lectures at home. A few students replied anonymously or told me that they preferred traditional lectures to Kahoots. The majority seemed to favor the Kahoots, but students that seemed to perform better in traditional classroom settings seemed to be slightly more apprehensive to a non-traditional approach to reviewing material.

Additional student responses may be seen via the link to the right in the Student Survey Results.

Student Challenges

    Flipped Classroom Review in Kahoots
    • Some students’ mobile phones would die, thus limiting their ability to participate in the gamified reviews.
    • One student found it challenging that I covered the review material in a non-linear fashion using the randomize question order and answers on Kahoot. I understand the student wanted to cover the information for the week in a progressive format, but I found the randomized approach an easier way to keep the material entertaining.
    • Due to the design of Kahoot, review of some questions needed to be cut short to keep students from being kicked out of the Kahoots. The students were playing for points, and it was essential to make sure they were not kicked out of the game. The scores were not applied to their grade, but the element of competition seemed to be significant.
    Virtual Reality Simulation
    • There were only two computers with headsets available to the students, and it required them to use the virtual reality stations. At one point, one of the stations died, and there was only one station available. All of the students completed the work, but this would be a problem with a course of 100 students.
    • Some of the students found the UI and simulation design awkward. I agree with them. UI and UX are still in developmental stages for VR. This issue will most likely correct itself over time as the medium develops and students gain experience with it.
    • The controls on the simulation were sometimes difficult to maneuver. Students with a gaming background had an easier time navigating the space versus non-gaming students.

Lessons Learned and Redesign Tips

Gamification and simulation is a great way to engage students. I would give the following tips and recommendations for instructors looking to add virtual simulation and/or gamification from my course.

Kahoots and Gamification of Lectures Advice

  • Kahoots and gamifying lecture was a great way to involve most of the students. Since the students used their phones to answer questions, I did not notice as many students texting or browsing during flipped classroom lecture reviews.
  • My approach was to create Kahoots based upon the essential topics from the lectures and questions similar to those on the exams.
  • Each of my Kahoots would be between 15 to 30 questions. Plan to spend at least two minutes on each item.
  • Awarding points as part of a Kahoot created a competitive atmosphere and raised participation more than not awarding points. The points were not part of their overall course grade, but only a way to keep track of who scored the most points each week in class. Since Kahoots awards more points the faster a participant responds, I think giving these points as part of their grade may cause issues. I would advise using points as solely to create slight competition in the course.
  • Kahoots covering flipped classroom video lectures helped in identifying where either the video lectures were lacking or material the students found challenging. My advice is to use Kahoots over the course of at least two semesters to review video lectures before changing anything in the video lectures. Sometimes it may be a single class that is struggling with the concepts and not always an issue with individual lectures.
  • Prizes, such as stickers or candy, would raise the competitive spirit.
  • Treating the Kahoots like a game show usually garnered the most excitement amongst the students.
  • Kahoots will sometimes kick participants out of the game if you dawdle too long on the results of each question. I suggest spending no longer than three minutes on any screening after the question ends. This method also keeps the pacing of the class up where students do not wander too much. The only issue is that some students find the pacing too fast.

Utilizing Virtual Simulation

  • There are still a significant amount of hurdles utilizing virtual reality in the course. The students were able to use HTC Vive (high-end virtual reality headsets) through rooms in the library. The headsets were often malfunctioning since they are somewhat finicky.
  • I was teaching a photography-based course, but the simulations were not high resolution or photorealistic. Students seemed to understand the concepts using lower resolution models. Based upon suggestions from Voices of VR podcasts, Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics, and other research I had examined, lower resolution simulations often allow a more personal experience through abstraction and icons than having a simulation that is photorealistic causing the uncanny valley effect.
  • I needed to demonstrate the VR simulation in class before most students understood how to use the headset. Several students expressed fear about using the headset before the demonstration.
  • Less expensive headsets, such as the Oculus Go, HTV Vive Focus, and Lenovo Mirage Solo, are currently hitting the market. My gut feeling is that these will be better for developing lower end simulations versus development for higher-end headsets. Though the high-end headsets provide a more immersive experience, I think the newer standalone headsets will work better.
  • 360 video is less interactive than interactive virtual reality simulation. I would recommend experiencing each level of headset before developing a simulation for one.

Developing a Simulation

  • Development takes time. I was hoping to have more developed by the time I introduced the simulation to the class. Start out simple and slowly build from there. Looking back, I would start with several small mini simulations before planning a giant simulation.
  • I used Unity, which personal licenses are free and can be found at http://unity3d.com. Please note that games developed by educational institutions and sold for a profit require higher end licenses.
  • Unity is not the most accessible software to master. The other software I evaluated was Unreal Engine, but I found the development community and availability of assets was better with Unity.
  • The two main items needed for development is the artistic assets and the game coding. Game art, sample coding, and game editors may be acquired through the Unity Asset Store. Using premade coding will require some knowledge of how to revise the coding to fit your simulation. If using 3D models that move, you will need to include rigging and animation.
  • For mobile applications, web applications, or virtual reality applications, there are some factors which can affect the performance. These include things such as polygon count, bones in models, use of particle systems, mesh rendering, and more. You will need to analyze your game’s performance based upon several different factors.
  • Create a Game Design Document before you begin.
  • Utilize Discord, Unity Forums, YouTube, and other online resources to develop your game. Most developers are extremely friendly and can provide a great deal of assistance.
  • If there is a game design program, 3D modeling courses, or C# courses, check with students for assistance.
  • LMS integration is extremely limited at the time of writing this report. I wanted to integrate my game into the LMS, but in the end, there was a lack of modern-day LMS integration. The only integration I found available was SCORM, and it was insufficient.
  • Other issues with development may include student privacy, FERPA, accessibility, and execution. Work closely with IT and administrators to adhere to the policies as best as possible.
  • Use anti-cheat systems on the final game to prevent students from hacking into the simulator.
  • IT will most likely need to approve your final simulation. Talk to IT about any foreseeable issues before you begin development. I cannot express how important it is to work with IT before you start development.

Course Redesign Obstacles

  • One of the most significant issues was approval for funding to purchase assets. Due to several policies, it took approximately five months to gain access to funds for buying assets. Since several people were not familiar with the development process, it had to be explained multiple times. Even after several rounds of assets were approved, there were new hurdles that would come into play for various reasons.
  • IT had several concerns regarding student privacy, FERPA, accessibility, LMS integration, and testing. Before approaching IT, I had done thorough research on each of these items and would send my report to anyone with concerns. This research greatly expedited my approval process.
  • I had initially planned to develop more than what was possible after I gained access to my funding. I developed my own RPG simulation game for the course and received assistance from other VR developers. In the end, I was only able to utilize one of the simulators in the class due to time constraints. I plan to develop the RPG simulation game for future courses and integrate the VR simulator into the RPG simulation when the technology is available.
  • Many students are scared of technology. Demonstration of simulations was essential since many students would not try the simulations until they were told exactly how to use them. This still causes me some concern, since part of their learning process should be making mistakes while exploring the virtual space and activities.
  • I believe some of my results may be skewed higher since the class Pre Redesigned Course was 69 students and the Redesigned Course was only 20 students. Due to departmental circumstances, I was reassigned from a massive lecture course to smaller class size. The Redesigned Course needs to be tested on much larger class size to see if the results are consistent.

Strategies to Increase Engagement

  • Flipped Classroom - Students watched videos lectures outside of class, completed a workbook in the LMS, and we would discuss the video lectures in class.
  • Group Work - Students participated in individual assignments, but also in larger group work. Students would complete half of their Photo Journal assignments.
  • Gamification of Flipped Classroom Videos - Using Kahoots, I gamified the review of the course material. Kahoots increased student participation. Before this, I would review the lectures and slides from the videos in class. I’d often ask for questions and several times students would not have any questions. The addition of Kahoots seemed to capture students’ attentions and kept them from texting during the course.
  • Virtual Simulation - Students were able to explore difficult concepts regarding cameras. The simulation included f-stops, ISO, shutter speed, and lenses.

Instructor Reflections


I found the Course Redesign process extremely beneficial. One of the most significant benefits was meeting with faculty across the entire CSU system. The ability to talk to others and hear how different faculty were approaching design significantly impacted my design. After learning about Kahoots at the retreat in Sacramento, I tested Kahoots in one of my courses during the Fall semester, and it resulted in a 3% increase in test scores. I used Kahoots in most of my courses for the Spring semester, and I saw between a 3 - 5% increase in test scores in these classes as well. As for the ePortfolio, I found it reasonably straightforward. It’s nice to see the evolution of the course design from Stage 1 to Stage 4. The online web meetings were usually beneficial, but the benefits would vary depending on the topic. The web meetings were often difficult to attend due to the time, particularly in the Spring semester. Our particular discipline-based meeting was lacking due to the disciplines included in virtual labs were hugely varied. If the technologies were similar, it might have helped more, but there was everything from Labster to programming in Flash. I found the guest lectures for the discipline-based meetings to be great.

Future Plans

I received a new position at California State University, Bakersfield starting in Fall 2018. I will not be teaching a course identical to this course. I will be continuing to develop the simulator and RPG games, but it will be generalized for general use in photography or film courses. I would like to collect more data on gamification before publishing results.